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There are a lot of towns called "Joka-Machi" in Japan. It's a kind of Japanese downtown and it defended the castle in the past. So the Joka-Machi were build to surround the castle, so the structure of the Joka-Machi are similar as snail shells in other words. So the enemy couldn't go straight ahead the castle by the structure of the Joka-Machi. So the king used Joka-Machi for their defenses when the war started.
Japanese castles weren't only defended by the Joka-Machi but also their moats defended the castles. The moat is one of the obstacles dug the grand and it has two kinds, which are empty moat and water moat filled with water. Generally, they dug some moats and we call outside moat "Soto-Bori" and inside moat "Uchi-Bori", and we call middle moat "Naka-Bori" if they have three layers.
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